Alcohol is a depressant and can affect the way your brain functions, so it’s important to take a measured approach to how much alcohol you drink regularly. Alcohol may give you a temporary ‘high’, but if you don’t drink sensibly, or you drink heavily over a long period of time, you may be at risk of developing mental health problems, such as anxiety or depression.


It’s not possible to be precise about how much is safe for individual men and women to drink. Current guidelines, however, recommend not regularly drinking more than three or four units a day for men and two or three units a day for women. Although ‘Regularly’ means every day or most days of the week, it’s a good idea to have at least two alcohol-free days a week so you don’t go over the limits. So over a week, men shouldn’t have more than 21 units and women shouldn’t have more than 14 units.

This doesn’t mean you can save up all the ‘allowance’ for a weekend binge. A drinking binge is generally defined as drinking double the daily recommended units in one session.

A large 250ml glass of standard strength wine (13% ABV) can be as much as three units, while a pint of standard strength lager (4% ABV) is more than two units. But don’t ‘save up’ your allowance for a one-night binge as this has a bad effect on your liver, which will leave you feeling worse too.

Is it safe to drink alcohol and drive?
No. Alcohol use slows reaction time and impairs judgment and coordination, which are all skills needed to drive a car safely.  The more alcohol consumed, the greater the impairment.

How do I know if I have a drinking problem?
Drinking is a problem if it causes trouble in your work, relationships, in school, in social activities, or in how you think and feel. If you are concerned that either you or someone in your family might have a drinking problem, consult your health care provider.




At UAP we authorize at-least 20 Hysterectomies every month. It is important to know what a Hysterectomy is and indications for having this procedure done.

A hysterectomy is a surgery to remove a woman’s uterus or womb. The uterus is where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant. The whole uterus or just part of it may be removed. After a hysterectomy, you no longer have menstrual periods and cannot become pregnant.

During the hysterectomy, the doctor also may remove your fallopian tubes and ovaries. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones. The fallopian tubes carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. The cervix is the lower end of the uterus that joins the vagina. These organs are located in a woman’s lower abdomen, as shown in the image below.


If you have not yet reached menopause and:

  • You keep your ovaries during the hysterectomy, you may enter menopause at an earlier age than most women.
  • Your ovaries are removed during the hysterectomy, you will enter menopause. You can talk with your doctor about ways to manage menopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness.

Types of hysterectomy:

  • Partial, subtotal, or supra-cervical removes just the upper part of the uterus. The cervix is left in place.
  • Total removes the whole uterus and the cervix.
  • Radical removes the whole uterus, the tissue on both sides of the cervix, and the upper part of the vagina. This is done mostly when there is cancer present.

There are different ways that your doctor can perform a hysterectomy. It will depend on your health history and the reason for your surgery.

  • Abdominal hysterectomy. This is done through a 5- to 7-inch incision, or cut, in the lower part of your belly. The cut may go either up and down, or across your belly, just above your pubic hair.
  • Vaginal hysterectomy. This is done through a cut in the vagina. The doctor will take your uterus out through this incision and close it with stitches.
  • Laparoscopic hysterectomy. A laparoscope is an instrument with a thin, lighted tube and small camera that allows your doctor to see your pelvic organs. Your doctor will make three to four small cuts in your belly and insert the laparoscope and other instruments. He or she will cut your uterus into smaller pieces and remove them through the incisions.
  • Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy. Your doctor will remove your uterus through the vagina. The laparoscope is used to guide the procedure.
  • Robotic-assisted surgery. Your doctor uses a special machine (robot) to do the surgery through small cuts in your belly, much like a laparoscopic hysterectomy (see above). It is most often done when a patient has cancer or is very overweight and vaginal surgery is not safe.

Indication for Hysterectomies:

Hysterectomy may be needed if you have:

  • Cancer of the uterus, ovary, cervix, or endometrium Hysterectomy may be the best option if you have cancer in these organs. The endometrium is the tissue that lines the uterus.
  • Fibroids. Fibroids are non-cancerous, muscular tumors that grow in the wall of the uterus. Many women with fibroids have only minor symptoms and do not need treatment. Fibroids also often shrink after menopause. In some women, fibroids can cause prolonged heavy bleeding or pain. Fibroids can be treated with medications. There are also procedures to remove the fibroids, which block the blood supply to the tumors. Without blood, the fibroids shrink over time, which can reduce pain and heavy bleeding. Another procedure called myomectomyremoves the tumors while leaving your uterus intact, but there is a risk that the tumors could come back. If medications or procedures to remove the fibroids have not helped, and a woman is either near or past menopause and does not want children, hysterectomy can cure problems from fibroids.
  • Endometriosis. This health problem occurs when the tissue that lines the uterus grows outside the uterus on your ovaries, fallopian tubes, or other pelvic or abdominal organs. This can cause severe pain during menstrual periods, chronic pain in the lower back and pelvis, pain during or after sex, bleeding between periods, and other symptoms. You might need a hysterectomy when medications or less invasive surgery to remove the spots of endometriosis have not helped.
  • Prolapse of the uterus. This is when the uterus slips from its usual place down into the vagina. This can lead to urinary and bowel problems and pelvic pressure. These problems might be helped for a time with an object called a vaginal pessary, which is inserted into the vagina to hold the womb in place.
  • Adenomyosis. In this condition, the tissue that lines the uterus grows inside the walls of the uterus, which can cause severe pain. If other treatments have not helped, a hysterectomy is the only certain cure.
  • Chronic pelvic pain. Surgery is a last resort for women who have chronic pelvic pain that clearly comes from the uterus. Many forms of pelvic pain are not cured by a hysterectomy, so it could be unnecessary and create new problems.
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding. Treatment depends on the cause. Changes in hormone levels, infection, cancer, or fibroids are some things that can cause abnormal bleeding. There are medications that can lighten heavy bleeding, correct irregular bleeding, and relieve pain. These include hormone medications, birth control pills, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs). One procedure for abnormal bleeding is dilatation and curettage (D&C), in which the lining and contents of the uterus are removed. Another procedure, endometrial ablation also removes the lining of your uterus and can help stop heavy, prolonged bleeding. But, it should not be used if you want to become pregnant or if you have gone through menopause.
  • Control Postpartum Bleeding: Sometimes hysterectomy is needed to control bleeding during a cesarean delivery following pregnancy complications. There are other methods doctors use to control bleeding in most of these cases, but hysterectomy is still needed for some women.

When your doctor recommends Hysterectomy:

  • Ask about the possible risks of the surgery.
  • Talk to your doctor about other treatment options. Ask about the risks of those treatments.
  • Consider getting a second opinion from another doctor.

Recovery Post Hysterectomy

Recovering from a hysterectomy takes time. Most women stay in the hospital from 1 to 2 days for post-surgery care. Some women may stay longer, often when the hysterectomy is done because of cancer. The time it takes for you to resume normal activities depends on the type of surgery. If you had:

  • Abdominal surgery. Recovery takes from 4 to 6 weeks. You will gradually be able to increase your activities.
  • Vaginal or laparoscopic surgery. Recovery takes 3 to 4 weeks.

You should get plenty of rest and not lift heavy objects for a full 6 weeks after surgery. About 6 weeks after either surgery, you should be able to take tub baths and resume sexual intercourse. Research has found that women with a good sex life before hysterectomy can maintain it after the surgery.

Risks of having a Hysterectomy

Most women do not have health problems during or after the surgery, but some of the risks of a hysterectomy include:

  • Injury to nearby organs, such as the bowel, urinary tract, bladder, rectum, or blood vessels
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Early menopause, if the ovaries are removed
  • Anesthesia problems, such as breathing or heart problems
  • Allergic reactions to medicines
  • Blood clots in the legs or lungs. These can be fatal.
  • Infection
  • Heavy bleeding

Pap smear after Hysterectomy

You will still need regular Pap tests to screen for cervical cancer if you had a partial hysterectomy and did not have your cervix removed, or if your hysterectomy was for cancer. Ask your doctor what is best for you and how often you should have Pap tests.

Even if you do not need Pap tests, all women who have had a hysterectomy should have regular pelvic exams and mammograms.



The thyroid is a small gland found at the base of your neck, just below your Adam’s apple. The thyroid produces two main hormones called T3 and T4. These hormones travel in your blood to all parts of your body. These thyroid hormones control the rate of many activities in your body. These include how fast you burn calories and how fast your heart beats. All of these activities together are known as your body’s metabolism. A thyroid that is working normally will produce the right amounts of hormones needed to keep your body’s metabolism working at a normal rate.

Women are more likely than men to develop thyroid disorders. Thyroid disorders include:

  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Thyroid nodules
  • Thyroiditis
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Goiter


Some disorders cause the thyroid to produce more thyroid hormones than the body needs. This is called hyperthyroidism or overactive thyroid. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves’ disease. Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder, in which the body’s own defense system, called the immune system, stimulates the thyroid. This causes it to make too much of the thyroid hormones. Hyperthyroidism can also be caused by thyroid nodules that prompt excess thyroid hormones production.

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism

  • Weight loss, even if you eat the same or more food
  • Eating more than usual
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat or pounding of your heart
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Trembling in your hands and fingers
  • Increased sweating
  • Increased sensitivity to heat
  • Muscle weakness
  • More frequent bowel movements
  • Less frequent menstrual periods with lighter than normal menstrual flow
  • Osteoporosis, or weak, brittle bones.


Hypothyroidism is when your thyroid does not produce enough thyroid hormones. It is also called underactive thyroid. The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto’s disease. Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disease, in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid. This attack damages the thyroid resulting in reduced hormone production. Hypothyroidism also can be caused by:

  • Treatment of hyperthyroidism
  • Radiation treatment of certain cancers
  • Thyroid removal
  • In rare cases, problems with the pituitary gland can cause the thyroid to be less active.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism

  • Weight gain, even though you are not eating more food
  • Increased sensitivity to cold
  • Constipation
  • Muscle weakness
  • Joint or muscle pain
  • Depression
  • Fatigue (feeling very tired)
  • Pale dry skin
  • A puffy face
  • A hoarse voice
  • Excessive menstrual bleeding
  • High blood levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol.

Thyroid nodules

A thyroid nodule is a swelling in one section of the thyroid gland. The nodule can be solid or filled with fluid or blood; one thyroid nodule or many. Most thyroid nodules do not cause symptoms however some thyroid nodules make too much of the thyroid hormones, causing hyperthyroidism. Sometimes, nodules enlarge and cause problems with swallowing or breathing. In fewer than 10 percent of cases, thyroid nodules are cancerous.

Thyroid nodules are quite common. There is a 50 percent chance of having a thyroid nodule larger than a half inch wide.


Thyroiditis is inflammation, or swelling, of the thyroid. There are several types of thyroiditis, one of which is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Other types of thyroiditis include:

Postpartum Thyroidits

Like Hashimoto’s disease, postpartum thyroiditis seems to be caused by a problem with the immune system. Post-partum thyroiditis occurs in about 5 -10 percent of women. The first phase starts 1 to 4 months after giving birth. In this phase, one may get symptoms of hyperthyroidism because the damaged thyroid releases thyroid hormones out into the bloodstream. The second phase starts about 4 to 8 months after delivery. In this phase, one may get symptoms of hypothyroidism because, by this time, the thyroid has lost most of its hormones. Not everyone with postpartum thyroiditis goes through both phases. In most women who have postpartum thyroiditis, thyroid function returns to normal within 12 to 18 months after symptoms start.

Risk factors for postpartum thyroiditis include having:

  • An autoimmune disease, like type 1 diabetes
  • A personal history or family history of thyroid disorders
  • Having had postpartum thyroiditis after a previous pregnancy

Silent or painless thyroiditis

Symptoms are the same as in postpartum thyroiditis, but they are not related to having given birth.

Subacute thyroiditis

Symptoms are the same as in postpartum and silent thyroiditis, but the inflammation in the thyroid leads to pain in the neck, jaw, or ear. Unlike the other types of thyroiditis, subacute thyroiditis may be caused by an infection.

Thyroid cancer

Most people with thyroid cancer have a thyroid nodule that is not causing any symptoms. If you have a thyroid nodule, there is a small chance it may be thyroid cancer. To tell if the nodule is cancerous, your doctor will have to do certain tests. A few people with thyroid cancer may have symptoms. If the cancer is big enough, it may cause swelling you can see in the neck. It may also cause pain or problems swallowing. Some people get a hoarse voice.

Thyroid cancer is rare compared with other types of cancer. It is more common in people who:

  • Have a history of exposure of the thyroid to radiation (but not routine X-ray exposure, as in dental X-rays or mammograms)
  • Have a family history of thyroid cancer
  • Are older than 40 years of age


A goiter is an abnormally enlarged thyroid gland. Causes of goiter include:

  • Iodine deficiency. Iodine is a mineral that your thyroid uses for making thyroid hormones. Not getting enough iodine in your food and water can cause your thyroid to get bigger. This cause of goiter is uncommon in the United States because iodine is added to table salt.
  • Hashimoto’s disease
  • Graves’ disease
  • Thyroid nodules
  • Thyroiditis
  • Thyroid cancer

Usually, the only symptom of a goiter is a swelling in your neck. But a very large or advanced goiter can cause a tight feeling in your throat, coughing, or problems swallowing or breathing.

Having a goiter does not always mean that your thyroid is not making the right amount of hormones. Depending on the cause of your goiter, your thyroid could be making too much, not enough, or the right amount of hormones.

Thyroid disorders diagnosis

Thyroid disorders can be hard to diagnose because their symptoms can be linked to many other health problems. The doctor will start by taking a medical history and asking if any of your family members has a history of thyroid disease.

The doctor will also give you a physical exam and check your neck for thyroid nodules. Depending on your symptoms, your doctor may also do other tests, such as:

  • Level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • Radioactive iodine uptake test
  • Thyroid scan
  • Thyroid fine needle biopsy
  • Thyroid ultrasound


Are you a pre-dominant Left or Right Brain user?

The Left Brain The Right Brain
Converts information from the external environment into language and helps to verbalize the information in your mind and to logically decide how best to present it. Processes information very quickly as images through our five senses and emotion.
Continuously dumps old information to make room for new. Stores every memory
Prefers study notes or written information. Likes a pictorial or diagrammatic format when taking notes during study.
We think in logical ways. We think intuitively.
Is verbal. Is visual.
Is rational. Is non-rational.
Is analytical. Is synthetic
Has numbering skills. Computer-like math calculation abilities.
Is logical and conscious. Is capable of taking in information quickly.
Is capable of scanning book pages.. We’re capable of speed-reading.
Is practical works well under stress. Is emotional. Works well when fully relaxed.
  We are capable of perfect pitch and musical aptitude
  We’re able to acquire multiple languages. .


Panic disorder is different from the normal fear and anxiety reactions to stressful events in our lives.panic

Panic disorder is a serious condition and symptoms include sudden attacks of fear and nervousness, as well as physical symptoms such as sweating and a racing heart. During a panic attack, the fear response is out of proportion for the situation, which often is not threatening. Over time, a person with panic disorder develops a constant fear of having another panic attack, which can affect daily functioning and general quality of life.

Panic disorder most often begins during late adolescence and early adulthood. It is twice as common in women as in men

Symptoms of Panic Disorder

Often last about 10 minutes, include:

  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Pounding heart or chest pain.
  • Intense feeling of dread.
  • Sensation of choking or smothering.
  • Dizziness or feeling faint.
  • Trembling or shaking.
  • Sweating
  • Nausea or stomachache.
  • Tingling or numbness in the fingers and toes.
  • Chills or hot flashes.
  • A fear that you are losing control or are about to die.

Causes Panic Disorder

The exact cause of panic disorder is not fully understood however biological and environmental, may be involved. These factors include.

  • Family history. Panic disorder has been shown to run in families.
  • Abnormalities in the brain. Panic disorder may be caused by problems in parts of the brain.
  • Substance abuse. Abuse of drugs and alcohol can contribute to panic disorder.
  • Major life stress. Stressful events and major life transitions, such as the death of a loved one, can trigger panic disorder.


Complete medical history and physical exam. There are no lab tests to specifically diagnose panic disorder.


  • Psychotherapy
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy
  • Medication
  • Relaxation techniques


  • Avoidance. Discontinue any activities that seem to trigger a panic attack making a normal work and home life nearly impossible.
  • Anticipatory anxiety. Anxiety that is triggered merely by thinking about the possibility of having an anxiety attack.
  • Agoraphobia. Fear of being in places or situations in which an attack may occur, or from which escape would be difficult or highly embarrassing. This fear can drive people to avoid public places and crowds, and may even progress to the point that the person will not leave his or her home.
  • Claustrophobia. Fear of enclosed spaces.


Panic disorder cannot be prevented; however, there are some things you can do to reduce stress and decrease symptoms, including:

  • Stop or reduce consumption of products that contain caffeine, such as coffee, tea, cola, and chocolate.
  • Ask your doctor or pharmacist before taking any over-the-counter drugs or herbal remedies. Many contain chemicals that can increase anxiety symptoms.
  • Exercise daily and eat a healthy, balanced diet.


Men and women are equally stressed; however men deal with stress differently. They bottle everything up and are hence more likely to suffer harmful effects of stress. The major causes of stress for both women and men are family, relationships, finances and work issues. However the greatest cause of stress differs in the two with relationship loss being the greater stressor for women while performance failure for men. Men tend to let their rival’s efforts or their employer’s agenda set the level of their demand, losing focus on the self to preoccupation with winning or attaining an extrinsic objective. But not all stress is bad. Minor instances of stress keep us engaged and challenged. This level of stress can make life interesting and help us achieve our goals.  However, the danger is when stress takes over. Stress is a normal response to life’s many challenges, even when they are positive ones, such as a new job or a new baby. It is only when stress becomes too much to manage that it is harmful to the mind and body.stress

The main symptoms of stress include;

  • Feeling tired,
  • Forgetfulness,
  • Inability to sleep,
  • Irritability,
  • Lack of motivation,
  • Loss of concentration and an inability to complete projects,
  • Muscular and skeletal aches and pains and recurring headaches.

Stress can also cause more severe medical conditions: Chest pains, Digestive problems, Elevated blood pressure, Elevated heart rate at rest, Sexual problems such as lack of desire, inability to have an erection, or premature ejaculation, Skin eruptions

Managing stress is very different by men and women. Women often seek support from friends, family, or a support group to talk out the emotional experience, to process what is happening and what might be done. Men do not like admitting vulnerabilities. Men often seek an escape activity to get relief from stress, to create a relaxing diversion, to get away from the stress. This could be attributed to the way men are taught from an early age. Men are taught to act as if they can control the impossible on a daily basis

Three simple steps that can be used to manage stress include:

  • First getting interpersonally connected with friends you rely on and talk with through a stressful situation.
  • Secondly, getting physical exercise that has been shown to be a major stress reducer by boosting production of the brains feel-good hormones known as endorphins. In addition exercise helps to improve one’s mood by increasing self confidence and lowering the symptoms associated with depression and anxiety. As one is busy exercising focus is on the task at hand which help one forget worries and relax. It is important to chose an activity that you enjoy doing like walking, climbing, jogging, bicycling, zumba, weightlifting and swimming.
  • Last and definitely not the least, important step is getting enough sleep.

However, too much sleep is considered an unhealthy way of dealing with stress. Other unhealthy ways of dealing with stress include hiding behind too much alcohol and drugs; smoking; eating too much (for some, is akin to taking a drug) or eating too little as radical changes in blood sugar levels can affect your moods, dulling the emotional symptoms of stress; acting out anger on others; zoning out for hours in front of the TV or computer; withdrawing from friends, family, and activities; procrastinating and trying to escape the stressful situation by filling up every minute of the day to avoid facing problems. These coping strategies may temporarily reduce stress, but they cause more damage in the long run.